Legal positivism and morality
Even if moral properties were identical with, or supervened upon, these rule-of-law properties, they do so in virtue of their rule-like character, and not their law-like character. If the imperativalists' picture of the political system was pyramidal power, Hart's is more like Weber's rational bureaucracy.
As Finnis says, the reasons we have for establishing, maintaining or reforming law include moral reasons, and these reasons therefore shape our legal concepts p.
Law may have an essentially moral character and yet be morally deficient. And judges may develop a settled practice of doing this whether or not it is required by any enactment; it may become customary practice in certain types of cases.
Among the ideas developed in Hart's book The Concept of Law are: a critique of Austin's theory that a law is a command of the sovereign enforced by a threat of punishment a distinction between internal and external consideration of law and rules, influenced by Max Weber 's distinction between legal and sociological perspectives on law a distinction between primary and secondary legal rules, such that a primary rule, such as a criminal law, governs conduct, and secondary rules provide methods by which primary rules are recognized, changed or judicially applied.
For, as Hart points out, a purely coercive command can oblige, but never obligate, a person to comply see Section I, supra.
Legal positivism and morality
Law stands continuously exposed to demands for justification, and that too shapes its nature and role in our lives and culture. And officials all too often fail to administer the laws in a fair and even-handed manner-even in the best of legal systems. This we may call the moral fallibility thesis. So we should consider the wider question: why not regard as law everything referred to by law? The Existence and Sources of Law Every human society has some form of social order, some way of marking and encouraging approved behavior, deterring disapproved behavior, and resolving disputes. Development and Influence Legal positivism has a long history and a broad influence. Pure Theory of Law, trans. Lawyers can agree on the criteria a rule must satisfy to be legally valid, but disagree on whether those criteria are satisfied by a particular rule. Hart responds by denying Fuller's claim that the principles of legality constitute an internal morality; on Hart's view, Fuller confuses the notions of morality and efficacy: [T]he author's insistence on classifying these principles of legality as a "morality" is a source of confusion both for him and his readers Exclusive positivists offer three main arguments for stopping at social sources. Insofar as non-sanctioned rules and laws that allow persons to do things, such as contract law , Austin said that failure to obey the rules does result in sanctions; however, such sanctions are in the form of "the sanction of nullity. The inclusivist thesis is actually groping towards an important, but different, truth.
Imperatival theories are now without influence in legal philosophy but see Ladenson and Morison. According to Hart, there is no difference between the Austinian sovereign who governs by coercing behavior and the gunman who orders someone to hand over her money.
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