Studies on the effect of municipal

Effect of solid waste disposal on soil

Indiscriminate dumping of refuse can influence soil physico chemical properties , but can still be used for farming provided the risks associated with its usage are continuously assessed and controlled. Second, studies investigating the implications of amalgamations for the quality of local service delivery offer some support to the idea that larger local governments are able to provide better quality services to their citizens. Sampling Instruments and Methods A mobile laboratory [ 18 ] was used in this work. The growth of population in Ibadan rose from the estimated , in to , in In terms of time frame, the period is the most represented decade in this group of studies 41 articles , indicating the recent surge in studies of the effects of municipal amalgamations. The result obtained in the analysis Funaria capsularis revealed the presence of cadmium, lead, zinc, copper and iron in the samples Table 4. The other standards Dibenzo a,l pyrene, Dibenzo a,e pyrene and Dibenzo a,h pyrene 10 mg were supplied by Dr. Similarly, Reingenwertz finds no evidence of decrease in the level of services provided to residents of amalgamated municipalities in Israel. Cadmium concentration were found to be 0. This study aimed at evaluating bioaccumulation and effects caused by airborne pollutants from refuse dumps. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns Aaskoven Maximum rainfall is received from northeast monsoon period.

Nine articles were eliminated at this stage. Managerial Implications Empirical studies investigating the managerial implications of local government amalgamations are quite diverse in their use of dependent variables.

what is municipal waste

Section 3 is dedicated to discussion of results regarding PM10 concentrations 3. The results are organized in three subsections: financial performance outcomes, quality of service studies, and perception-based studies.

The highest value of CEC obtained in K2 was expected because soils with high pH and high humus content normally have high cation exchange capacity Brady and Weil, The result obtained in the analysis Funaria capsularis revealed the presence of cadmium, lead, zinc, copper and iron in the samples Table 4.

Contrary to the expectation of the provincial government of Ontario Canada that amalgamations would result in more efficient service delivery, in every jurisdiction, except the former city of Kingston, the majority of citizens surveyed felt that the value they were receiving for their taxes declined after amalgamation Kushner and Siegel The last sample at Cavallino site showed a higher value on the 4 day means with respect to the PM10 daily threshold. Improper management of municipal waste has become one of the problems facing developing urban cities across the world. The collected data were subjected to a validation based on the removal of the negative and null values, that were registered during the calibration of the instruments on average every days , on the analysis of the calibration stability and of the retention times. Improper disposal of waste was more common among the aged people and the children in that locality whereas, middle aged people precariously store it in their dustbins of their residence. Soil organic matter influences the degree of aggregation and aggregate stability and it can reduce bulk density and increase total porosity and hydraulic conductivity in heavy clay soils Anikwe, Apart from the issue of esthetics, uncollected wastes constitute a health risk, which can be a serious consideration in low income residential areas. Economic Efficiency The first thing that can be said about the effects of municipal amalgamations on economic efficiency and cost savings is that the promises of these territorial reforms are left largely unfulfilled.

Altundogan, H. Cost savings predicted by those supporting consolidation did not materialize Kushner and Siegel a.

Effects of municipal solid waste

Some residents those do not have patience to store waste may drop it either in the front or backyard of their house. The different fractions were separated using solvents i. A lot of toxic materials are leached by rain into soil and waterways from such dump sites. The other standards Dibenzo a,l pyrene, Dibenzo a,e pyrene and Dibenzo a,h pyrene 10 mg were supplied by Dr. In Germany Saxony , Roesel found evidence that mergers decreased the number of candidates and voter turnout in district elections, while vote shares for populist right-wing parties increased. Lastly, pre-amalgamation analyses were eliminated at this stage as they project the possible consequences of amalgamations rather than the actual consequences Drew, Kortt and Dollery ; Fahey, Drew and Dollery ; Kortt, Dollery and Drew ; Sinnewe, Kortt and Dollery ; Tavares and Rodrigues ; Callanan, Murphy and Quinlivan ; Drew and Dollery ; a ; Drew, Kortt and Dollery Leachate from uncollected and decomposed garbage waste can contaminate groundwater and this could have enormous health implications in low-income communities where the use of well-water for drinking is common UNCHS Rapid industrialization and population explosion in Lagos has led to the large scale migration of people from villages, less developed towns and urban areas across Nigeria. This study reveals that, in , most citizens did not have a favourable assessment of the Halifax Regional Municipality HRM amalgamation decision, nor of the performance of their Council, individual councillors or mayor. Maximum rainfall is received from northeast monsoon period. Tumen, However, the population growth is gradually shifting to the less city with a growth rate of 4. Municipal Solid Waste MSW generation in Kanchipuram has increased from 20 tonnes to 80 tonnes per day within the last 10 years Pynthamil and Joshua, Elaigwu , V. The highest and lowest values here were also higher than the values obtained for sites in Kaduna.

Apart from the issue of esthetics, uncollected wastes constitute a health risk, which can be a serious consideration in low income residential areas.

Common Pool Effects Several authors explore possible common pool resource effects in the pre-amalgamations period and find consistent support for this argument. Heavy metal pollution potential of zinc leach residues discarded in cinkur plant.

This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The author recommends that a new amalgamated government must be sufficiently small to maximize local democracy and sufficiently large to maximize economies of scale. On the contrary, Bakare states that Lagos with a population estimate of 21 million has a per capita waste generation of 0. The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia Napoleon et al. K2 samples with the highest organic matter content also showed highest concentration for cadmium, copper, lead and iron, with the exception of zinc-these metals are capable of being retained in the organic phase of the soil. In Israel, Zeedan investigates 24 amalgamated governments using panel data for voter turnout and finds that amalgamations reduce the quality of local democracy in terms of lower voter turnout and representation. These problems include urban sprawl, decaying inner-city, inadequate housing, crime, and congestion, among others. Stage 2: Simple random selection of household respondents in each of the locations in each stratum. This again suggests that the relatively high pH observed in these areas is as a result of leaching from the dump sites into the surrounding soils. However, Voutsa et al. In the words of Debnath et al. A total of 52 articles consisting of empirical analyses according to the criteria stated above were selected for the empirical review. Unscientific disposal causes an adverse impact on all components of the environment and human health Rathi, This definitely has consequential implications and impacts on the public health of the people. Slack and Bird investigate the effect of mergers in Toronto Canada using data and find that per household expenditures increased for fire, solid refuse, and parks and recreation services, with libraries being the only service under analysis that was unaffected by the merger.

However, this claim may not be true for waste management methods in developed countries. Overall, the empirical studies of the Danish territorial reform of are, by far, the most ambitious, diverse, and technically well-executed. The author also highlights that many empirical studies of amalgamation suffer from fundamental methodological problems: the adoption of an instrumental variable strategy is crucial to avoid biased estimates Miyazaki

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Effects of Municipal Waste Disposal Methods on Community Health in Ibadan