Nine articles were eliminated at this stage. Managerial Implications Empirical studies investigating the managerial implications of local government amalgamations are quite diverse in their use of dependent variables.
Section 3 is dedicated to discussion of results regarding PM10 concentrations 3. The results are organized in three subsections: financial performance outcomes, quality of service studies, and perception-based studies.
The highest value of CEC obtained in K2 was expected because soils with high pH and high humus content normally have high cation exchange capacity Brady and Weil, The result obtained in the analysis Funaria capsularis revealed the presence of cadmium, lead, zinc, copper and iron in the samples Table 4.Contrary to the expectation of the provincial government of Ontario Canada that amalgamations would result in more efficient service delivery, in every jurisdiction, except the former city of Kingston, the majority of citizens surveyed felt that the value they were receiving for their taxes declined after amalgamation Kushner and Siegel The last sample at Cavallino site showed a higher value on the 4 day means with respect to the PM10 daily threshold. Improper management of municipal waste has become one of the problems facing developing urban cities across the world. The collected data were subjected to a validation based on the removal of the negative and null values, that were registered during the calibration of the instruments on average every days , on the analysis of the calibration stability and of the retention times. Improper disposal of waste was more common among the aged people and the children in that locality whereas, middle aged people precariously store it in their dustbins of their residence. Soil organic matter influences the degree of aggregation and aggregate stability and it can reduce bulk density and increase total porosity and hydraulic conductivity in heavy clay soils Anikwe, Apart from the issue of esthetics, uncollected wastes constitute a health risk, which can be a serious consideration in low income residential areas. Economic Efficiency The first thing that can be said about the effects of municipal amalgamations on economic efficiency and cost savings is that the promises of these territorial reforms are left largely unfulfilled.
Altundogan, H. Cost savings predicted by those supporting consolidation did not materialize Kushner and Siegel a.
Apart from the issue of esthetics, uncollected wastes constitute a health risk, which can be a serious consideration in low income residential areas.
Common Pool Effects Several authors explore possible common pool resource effects in the pre-amalgamations period and find consistent support for this argument. Heavy metal pollution potential of zinc leach residues discarded in cinkur plant.This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The author recommends that a new amalgamated government must be sufficiently small to maximize local democracy and sufficiently large to maximize economies of scale. On the contrary, Bakare states that Lagos with a population estimate of 21 million has a per capita waste generation of 0. The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia Napoleon et al. K2 samples with the highest organic matter content also showed highest concentration for cadmium, copper, lead and iron, with the exception of zinc-these metals are capable of being retained in the organic phase of the soil. In Israel, Zeedan investigates 24 amalgamated governments using panel data for voter turnout and finds that amalgamations reduce the quality of local democracy in terms of lower voter turnout and representation. These problems include urban sprawl, decaying inner-city, inadequate housing, crime, and congestion, among others. Stage 2: Simple random selection of household respondents in each of the locations in each stratum. This again suggests that the relatively high pH observed in these areas is as a result of leaching from the dump sites into the surrounding soils. However, Voutsa et al. In the words of Debnath et al. A total of 52 articles consisting of empirical analyses according to the criteria stated above were selected for the empirical review. Unscientific disposal causes an adverse impact on all components of the environment and human health Rathi, This definitely has consequential implications and impacts on the public health of the people. Slack and Bird investigate the effect of mergers in Toronto Canada using data and find that per household expenditures increased for fire, solid refuse, and parks and recreation services, with libraries being the only service under analysis that was unaffected by the merger.
However, this claim may not be true for waste management methods in developed countries. Overall, the empirical studies of the Danish territorial reform of are, by far, the most ambitious, diverse, and technically well-executed. The author also highlights that many empirical studies of amalgamation suffer from fundamental methodological problems: the adoption of an instrumental variable strategy is crucial to avoid biased estimates Miyazaki